21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章

发布时间:2021-09-06
21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章

21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第1章


(ii) The shares held in Date Inc and the dividend income received from that company. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Shares held in Date Inc and the related dividend income
Degrouping charge
There will be a degrouping charge in Nikau Ltd in the year ending 31 March 2008 in respect of the shares in Date Inc.
This is because Nikau Ltd has left the Facet Group within six years of the no gain, no loss transfer of the shares whilst
still owning them.
Nikau Ltd is treated as if it has sold the shares in Date Inc for their market value as at the time of the no gain, no loss
transfer. This will give rise to a gain, ignoring indexation allowance, of £201,000 (£338,000 – £137,000).
This gain will give rise to additional corporation tax of £60,300 (£201,000 x 30%).
Controlled foreign company
Date Inc is a controlled foreign company. The profits of such a company are normally attributed to its UK resident
shareholders such that they are subject to UK corporation tax.
However, none of the profits of Date Inc will be attributed to Nikau Ltd because Date Inc distributes more than 90%
(£115,000/£120,000 = 95·8%) of its chargeable profits to its shareholders.
Dividend income
Nikau Ltd is a UK resident company and is therefore subject to corporation tax on its worldwide income.
The dividend income will be grossed up in respect of the withholding tax giving rise to taxable income of £39,792
(£38,200 x 100/96). There is no underlying tax as there are no taxes on income or capital profits in Palladia.
The corporation tax of £11,938 (£39,792 x 30%) will be reduced by unilateral double tax relief equal to the withholding
tax suffered of £1,592 (£39,792 x 4%) resulting in corporation tax due of £10,346 (£11,938 – £1,592).


(ii) Recommend which of the refrigeration systems should be purchased. You should state your reasons

which must be supported by relevant calculations. (3 marks)

正确答案:


(b) Mabel has two objectives when making the gifts to Bruce and Padma:

(1) To pay no tax on any gift in her lifetime; and

(2) To reduce the eventual liability to inheritance tax on her death.

Advise Mabel which item to gift to Bruce and to Padma in order to satisfy her objectives. Give reasons for

your advice.

Your advice should include a computation of the inheritance tax saved as a result of the two gifts, on the

assumption that Mabel dies on 30 June 2011. (10 marks)

正确答案:

 


(b) Explain the meaning of Stephanie’s comment: ‘I would like to get risk awareness embedded in the culture

at the Southland factory.’ (5 marks)

正确答案:
Embedded risk
Risk awareness is the knowledge of the nature, hazards and probabilities of risk in given situations. Whilst management will
typically be more aware than others in the organisation of many risks, it is important to embed awareness at all levels so as
to reduce the costs of risk to an organisation and its members (which might be measured in financial or non-financial terms).
In practical terms, embedding means introducing a taken-for-grantedness of risk awareness into the culture of an organisation
and its internal systems. Culture, defined in Handy’s terms as ‘the way we do things round here’ underpins all risk
management activity as it defines attitudes, actions and beliefs.
The embedding of risk awareness into culture and systems involves introducing risk controls into the process of work and the
environment in which it takes place. Risk awareness and risk mitigation become as much a part of a process as the process
itself so that people assume such measures to be non-negotiable components of their work experience. In such organisational
cultures, risk management is unquestioned, taken for granted, built into the corporate mission and culture and may be used
as part of the reward system.
Tutorial note: other meaningful definitions of culture in an organisational context are equally acceptable.


(b) Explain the advantages from a tax point of view of operating the new business as a partnership rather than

as a company whilst it is making losses. You should calculate the tax adjusted trading loss for the year

ending 31 March 2008 for both situations and indicate the years in which the loss relief will be obtained.

You are not required to prepare any other supporting calculations. (10 marks)

正确答案:

(b) The new business
There are two tax advantages to operating the business as a partnership.
(i) Reduction in taxable income
If the new business is operated as a company, Cindy and Arthur would both be taxed at 40% on their salaries. In
addition, employer and employee national insurance contributions would be due on £105 (£5,000 – £4,895) in respect
of each of them.
If the new business is operated as a partnership, the partners would have no taxable trading income because the
partnership has made a loss; any salaries paid to the partners would be appropriations of the profit or loss of the
business and not employment income. They would, however, each have to pay Class 2 national insurance contributions
of £2·10 each per week.
(ii) Earlier relief for trading losses
If the new business is operated as a company, its tax adjusted trading loss in the year ending 31 March 2008 would
be as follows:


(ii) Briefly explain the implications of Parr & Co’s audit opinion for your audit opinion on the consolidated

financial statements of Cleeves Co for the year ended 30 September 2006. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Implications for audit opinion on consolidated financial statements of Cleeves
■ If the potential adjustments to non-current asset carrying amounts and loss are not material to the consolidated
financial statements there will be no implication. However, as Howard is material to Cleeves and the modification
appears to be ‘so material’ (giving rise to adverse opinion) this seems unlikely.
Tutorial note: The question clearly states that Howard is material to Cleeves, thus there is no call for speculation
on this.
■ As Howard is wholly-owned the management of Cleeves must be able to request that Howard’s financial statements
are adjusted to reflect the impairment of the assets. The auditor’s report on Cleeves will then be unmodified
(assuming that any impairment of the investment in Howard is properly accounted for in the separate financial
statements of Cleeves).
■ If the impairment losses are not recognised in Howard’s financial statements they can nevertheless be adjusted on
consolidation of Cleeves and its subsidiaries (by writing down assets to recoverable amounts). The audit opinion
on Cleeves should then be unmodified in this respect.
■ If there is no adjustment of Howard’s asset values (either in Howard’s financial statements or on consolidation) it
is most likely that the audit opinion on Cleeves’s consolidated financial statements would be ‘except for’. (It should
not be adverse as it is doubtful whether even the opinion on Howard’s financial statements should be adverse.)
Tutorial note: There is currently no requirement in ISA 600 to disclose that components have been audited by another
auditor unless the principal auditor is permitted to base their opinion solely upon the report of another auditor.


(ii) job enlargement; (5 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Job enlargement is often referred to as ‘horizontal job enlargement’ and is aimed at widening the content of jobs by increasing the number of operations in which the job holder is involved and is another method by which employees at Bailey’s might become more involved. It reduces the level of repetition and dullness by providing a horizontal extension to activity, reducing monotony and boredom inherent in the operations at Bailey’s.


21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第2章


For this part, assume today’s date is 15 August 2005.

5 (a) Donald is aged 22, single, and about to finish his university education. He has plans to start up a business selling

computer games, and intends to start trading on 1 April 2006, making up accounts to 31 March annually.

He believes that his business will generate cash (equal to taxable profits) of £47,500 in the first year. He

originally intended to operate as a sole trader, but he has recently discovered that as an alternative, he could

operate through a company. He has been advised that if this is the case, he can take a maximum gross salary

of £42,648 out of the company.

Required:

(i) Advise Donald on the income tax (IT), national insurance (NIC) and corporation tax (CT) liabilities he

will incur for the year ended 31 March 2007 trading under each of the two alternative business

structures (sole trade/company). Your advice should be supported by calculations of disposable income

for both alternatives assuming that in the company case, he draws the maximum salary stated.

(7 marks)

正确答案:

 


(ii) Explain how the existing product range and the actions per Note (3) would feature in Ansoff’s

product-market matrix. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Market Penetration
With regard to existing products it would appear that a strategy of market penetration is being followed, whereby attempts
are made to sell existing products into existing markets. This is a low risk strategy which is most unlikely to lead to high
rates of growth, reflected in the forecast increase of 2% per annum in the years ending 30 November 2008 and 2009.
Management seeks here to increase its market share with the current product range. In pursuing a penetration strategy
the management of Vision plc may to some extent be able to exploit opportunities including the following:
– Encouraging existing customers to buy more of their brand
– Encouraging customers who are buying a competitor’s brand to switch to their brand
– Encouraging non-users within the segment to buy their brand
‘Strengths’ within the current portfolio will need to be consolidated and any areas of weakness addressed with remedial
action.
Market Development
The purchase of the retail outlets will enable management to sell existing products via new channels of distribution. The
products of both the Astronomy and Outdoor Pursuits divisions could be sold via the retail outlets. Very often new
markets can be established in geographical terms. Management could, for example, look to promote the sale of
microscopes and associated equipment to overseas hospitals.
Product Development
The launch of the Birdcam-V is an example of a product development strategy whereby new products are targeted at
existing markets. Very often, existing products can be improved, or if an organisation possesses adequate resources,
completely new products can be developed to meet existing market needs. Some of the main risks here lie in the ‘time
to market’ and product development costs which frequently go well beyond initial estimates.
Diversification
The purchase of Racquets Ltd is an example of diversification on the part of Vision plc since the products and markets
of Racquets Ltd bear no relationship to the existing products and markets of the company. In this regard the
diversification is said to be unrelated.
The establishment of the Oceanic division could be regarded as a related diversification since existing technology will be
used to develop new products for new markets. The success of this strategy will very much depend on the strength of
the Vision brand.


Assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2004 apply throughout.

(b) Explain the corporation tax (CT) and value added tax (VAT) issues that Irroy should be aware of, if she

proceeds with her proposal for the Irish subsidiary, Green Limited. Your answer should clearly identify those

factors which will determine whether or not Green Limited is considered UK resident or Irish resident and

the tax implications of each alternative situation.

You need not repeat points that are common to each situation. (16 marks)

正确答案:
(b) There are several matters that Irroy will need to be aware of in relation to value added tax and corporation tax. These are set
out below.
Residence of subsidiary
Irroy will want to ensure that the subsidiary is treated as being resident in the Republic of Ireland. It will then pay corporation
tax on its profits at lower rates than in the UK. The country of incorporation usually claims taxing rights, but this is not by
itself sufficient. Irroy needs to be aware that a company can be treated as UK resident by virtue of the location of its central
management and control. This is usually defined as being where the board of directors meets to make strategic decisions. As
a result, Irroy needs to ensure that board meetings are conducted outside the UK.
If Green Limited is treated as being UK resident, it will be taxed in the UK on its worldwide income, including that arising in
the Republic of Ireland. However, as it will be conducting trading activities in the Republic of Ireland, Green Limited will also
be treated as being Irish resident as its activities in that country are likely to constitute a permanent establishment. Thus it
may also suffer tax in the Republic of Ireland as a consequence, although double tax relief will be available (see later).
A permanent establishment is broadly defined as a fixed place of business through which a business is wholly or partly carried
on. Examples of a permanent establishment include an office, factory or workshop, although certain activities (such as storage
or ancillary activities) can be excluded from the definition.
If Green Limited is treated as being an Irish resident company, any dividends paid to Aqua Limited will be taxed under
Schedule D Case V in the UK. Despite being non resident, Green Limited will still count as an associate of the existing UK
companies, and may affect the rates of tax paid by Aqua Limited and Aria Limited in the UK. However, as a non UK resident
company, Green Limited will not be able to claim losses from the UK companies by way of group relief.
Double tax relief
If Green Limited is treated as UK resident, corporation tax at UK rates will be payable on all profits earned. However, income
arising in the Republic of Ireland is likely to have been taxed in that country also by virtue of having a permanent
establishment located there. As the same profits have been taxed twice, double tax relief is available, either by reference to
the tax treaty between the UK and the Republic of Ireland, or on a unilateral basis, where the UK will give relief for the foreign
tax suffered.
If Green Limited is treated as an Irish resident company, it will pay tax in the Republic of Ireland, based on its worldwide
taxable profits. However, any repatriation of profits to the UK by dividend will be taxed on a receipts basis in the UK. Again,
double tax relief will be available as set out above.
Double tax relief is available against two types of tax. For payments made by Green Limited to Aqua Limited on which
withholding tax has been levied, credit will be given for the tax withheld. In addition, relief is available for the underlying tax
where a dividend is received from a foreign company in which Aqua Limited owns at least 10% of the voting power. The
underlying tax is the tax attributable to the relevant profits from which the dividend was paid.
Double tax relief is given at the lower rate of the UK tax and the foreign tax (withholding and underlying taxes) suffered.
Transfer pricing
Where groups have subsidiaries in other countries, they may be tempted to divert profits to subsidiaries which pay tax at lower
rates. This can be achieved by artificially changing the prices charged (known as the transfer price) between the group
companies. While they can do this commercially through common control, anti avoidance legislation seeks to correct this by
ensuring that for taxation purposes, profits on such intra-group transactions are calculated as if the transactions were carried
out on an arms length basis. Since 1 April 2004, this legislation can also be applied to transactions between UK group
companies.
If Green Limited is treated as a UK resident company, the group’s status as a small or medium sized enterprise means that
transfer pricing issues will not apply to transactions between Green Limited and the other UK group companies.
If Green Limited is an Irish resident company, transfer pricing issues will not apply to transactions between Green Ltd and the
UK resident companies because of the group’s status as a small or medium-sized enterprise and the existence of a double
tax treaty, based on the OECD model, between the UK and the Republic of Ireland.
Controlled foreign companies
Tax legislation exists to stop a UK company accumulating profits in a foreign subsidiary which is subject to a low tax rate.
Such a subsidiary is referred to as a controlled foreign company (CFC), and exists where:
(1) the company is resident outside the UK, and
(2) is controlled by a UK resident entity or persons, and
(3) pays a ‘lower level of tax’ in its country of residence.
A lower level of tax is taken to be less than 75% of the tax that would have been payable had the company been UK resident.
If Green Limited is an Irish resident company, it will be paying corporation tax at 12·5% so would appear to be caught by
the above rules and is therefore likely to be treated as a CFC.
Where a company is treated as a CFC, its profits are apportioned to UK resident companies entitled to at least 25% of its
profits. For Aqua Limited, which would own 100% of the shares in Green Limited, any profits made by Green Limited would
be apportioned to Aqua Limited as a deemed distribution. Aqua Limited would be required to self-assess this apportionment
on its tax return and pay UK tax on the deemed distribution (with credit being given for the Irish tax suffered).
There are some exemptions which if applicable the CFC legislation does not apply and no apportionments of profits will be
made. These include where chargeable profits of the CFC do not exceed £50,000 in an accounting period, or where the CFC
follows an acceptable distribution policy (distributing at least 90% of its chargeable profits within 18 months of the relevant
period).
Value added tax (VAT)
Green Limited will be making taxable supplies in the Republic of Ireland and thus (subject to exceeding the Irish registration
limit) liable to register for VAT there. If Green Limited is registered for VAT in the Republic of Ireland, then supplies of goods
made from the UK will be zero rated. VAT on the goods will be levied in the Republic of Ireland at a rate of 21%. Aqua Limited
will need to have proof of supply in order to apply the zero rate, and will have to issue an invoice showing Green Limited’s
Irish VAT registration number as well as its own. In the absence of such evidence/registration, Aqua Limited will have to treat
its transactions with Green Limited as domestic sales and levy VAT at the UK standard rate of 17·5%.
In addition to making its normal VAT returns, Aqua Limited will also be required to complete an EU Sales List (ESL) statement
each quarter. This provides details of the sales made to customers in the return period – in this case, Green Limited. Penalties
can be applied for inaccuracies or non-compliance.


(c) Lamont owns a residential apartment above its head office. Until 31 December 2006 it was let for $3,000 a

month. Since 1 January 2007 it has been occupied rent-free by the senior sales executive. (6 marks)

Required:

For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
(c) Rent-free accommodation
(i) Matters
■ The senior sales executive is a member of Lamont’s key management personnel and is therefore a related party.
■ The occupation of Lamont’s residential apartment by the senior sales executive is therefore a related party
transaction, even though no price is charged (IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures).
■ Related party transactions are material by nature and information about them should be disclosed so that users of
financial statements understand the potential effect of related party relationships on the financial statements.
■ The provision of ‘housing’ is a non-monetary benefit that should be included in the disclosure of key management
personnel compensation (within the category of short-term employee benefits).
■ The financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 should disclose the arrangement for providing the
senior sales executive with rent-free accommodation and its fair value (i.e. $3,000 per month).
Tutorial note: Since no price is charged for the transaction, rote-learned disclosures such as ‘the amount of outstanding
balances’ and ‘expense recognised in respect of bad debts’ are irrelevant.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Physical inspection of the apartment to confirm that it is occupied.
■ Written representation from the senior sales executive that he is occupying the apartment free of charge.
■ Written representation from the management board confirming that there are no related party transactions requiring
disclosure other than those that have been disclosed.
■ Inspection of the lease agreement with (or payments received from) the previous tenant to confirm the $3,000
monthly rental value.


(b) Advise Maureen on deregistration for the purposes of value added tax (VAT) and any possible alternative

strategy. (8 marks)

An additional mark will be awarded for the effectiveness with which the information is communicated.

(1 mark)

正确答案:
(b) Advice on Maureen’s VAT position
Deregistration
In order to voluntarily deregister for VAT you must satisfy HMRC that the value of your taxable supplies in the next twelve
months will not exceed £62,000. You will then be deregistered with effect from the date of your request or a later date as
agreed with HMRC.
On deregistering you are regarded as making a supply of all stocks and equipment in respect of which input tax has been
claimed. However, the VAT on this deemed supply need only be paid to HMRC if it exceeds £1,000.
Once you have deregistered, you must no longer charge VAT on your sales. You will also be unable to recover the input tax
on the costs incurred by your business. Instead, the VAT you pay on your costs will be allowable when computing your taxable
profits.
You should monitor your sales on a monthly basis; if your sales in a twelve-month period exceed £64,000 you must notify
HMRC within the 30 days following the end of the twelve-month period. You will be registered from the end of the month
following the end of the twelve-month period.
Flat rate scheme
Rather than deregistering you may wish to consider operating the flat rate scheme. This would reduce the amount of
administration as you would no longer need to record and claim input tax in respect of the costs incurred by your business.
Under the flat rate scheme you would continue to charge your customers VAT in the way that you do at the moment. You
would then pay HMRC a fixed percentage of your VAT inclusive turnover each quarter rather than calculating output tax less
input tax. This may be financially advantageous as compared with deregistering; I would be happy to prepare calculations for
you if you wish.


(b) Ambush loaned $200,000 to Bromwich on 1 December 2003. The effective and stated interest rate for this

loan was 8 per cent. Interest is payable by Bromwich at the end of each year and the loan is repayable on

30 November 2007. At 30 November 2005, the directors of Ambush have heard that Bromwich is in financial

difficulties and is undergoing a financial reorganisation. The directors feel that it is likely that they will only

receive $100,000 on 30 November 2007 and no future interest payment. Interest for the year ended

30 November 2005 had been received. The financial year end of Ambush is 30 November 2005.

Required:

(i) Outline the requirements of IAS 39 as regards the impairment of financial assets. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) IAS 39 requires an entity to assess at each balance sheet date whether there is any objective evidence that financial
assets are impaired and whether the impairment impacts on future cash flows. Objective evidence that financial assets
are impaired includes the significant financial difficulty of the issuer or obligor and whether it becomes probable that the
borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation.
For investments in equity instruments that are classified as available for sale, a significant and prolonged decline in the
fair value below its cost is also objective evidence of impairment.
If any objective evidence of impairment exists, the entity recognises any associated impairment loss in profit or loss.
Only losses that have been incurred from past events can be reported as impairment losses. Therefore, losses expected
from future events, no matter how likely, are not recognised. A loss is incurred only if both of the following two
conditions are met:
(i) there is objective evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition
of the asset (a ‘loss event’), and
(ii) the loss event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or group of financial assets
that can be reliably estimated
The impairment requirements apply to all types of financial assets. The only category of financial asset that is not subject
to testing for impairment is a financial asset held at fair value through profit or loss, since any decline in value for such
assets are recognised immediately in profit or loss.
For loans and receivables and held-to-maturity investments, impaired assets are measured at the present value of the
estimated future cash flows discounted using the original effective interest rate of the financial assets. Any difference
between the carrying amount and the new value of the impaired asset is an impairment loss.
For investments in unquoted equity instruments that cannot be reliably measured at fair value, impaired assets are
measured at the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted using the current market rate of return for
a similar financial asset. Any difference between the previous carrying amount and the new measurement of theimpaired asset is recognised as an impairment loss in profit or loss.


(b) GHG has always used local labour to build and subsequently operate hotels. The directors of GHG are again

considering employing a local workforce not only to build the hotel but also to operate it on a daily basis.

Required:

Explain TWO ways in which the possibility of cultural differences might impact on the performance of a local

workforce in building and operating a hotel in Tomorrowland. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The directors of GHG should be mindful that the effectiveness of a locally employed workforce within Tomorrowland will be
influenced by a number of factors including the following:
The availability of local skills
If Tomorrowland is a lower wage economy it is quite conceivable that a sufficient number of employees possessing the
requisite skills to undertake the construction of a large hotel cannot be found. If there are insufficient local resources then this
would necessitate the training of employees in all aspects of building construction. This will incur significant costs and time
and needs to be reflected in any proposed timetable for construction of the hotel. As far as the operation of the hotel is
concerned then staff will have to be recruited and trained which will again give rise to significant start-up costs. However, this
should not present the directors of GHG with such a major problem as that of training construction staff. Indeed, it is highly
probable that GHG would use its own staff in order to train new recruits.
Attitudes to work
The prevailing culture within Tomorrowland will have a profound impact on attitudes to work of its population. Attitudes to
hours of work, timekeeping and absenteeism vary from culture to culture. For example, as regards hours of work in the
construction industry in countries which experience very hot climates, work is often suspended during the hottest part of each
day and recommenced several hours later when temperatures are much cooler. The directors of GHG need to recognise that
climatic conditions not only affect the design of a building but also its construction.
A potentially sensitive issue within regarding the use of local labour in the construction of the hotel lies in the fact that national
holidays and especially religious holidays need to be observed and taken into consideration in any proposed timetable for
construction of the hotel. As regards the operation of a hotel then consideration needs to be given to the different cultures
from which the guests come. For example, this will require a detailed consideration of menus to be offered. However, it might
well be the case that the local population might be unwilling to prepare dishes comprising ingredients which are unacceptable
to their culture due to, for example, religious beliefs.
(Note: other relevant factors would be acceptable.)


21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第3章


(b) Explain the advantages and the disadvantages of:

(i) the face to face interview between two people; (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) The face to face interview is the most common form. of interview. In this situation the candidate is interviewed by a single representative of the employing organisation.
The advantages of such interviews are that they establish an understanding between the participants, are cost effective for the organisation (only one member of the organisation’s staff is involved) and, because of the more personal nature, ensure that candidates feel comfortable.
The disadvantages are that the selection interview relies on the views and impression of a single interviewer that can be both subjective and biased. In addition, the interviewer may be selective in questioning and it is easier for the candidate to hide weaknesses or lack of ability.


8 Which of the following statements about accounting concepts and conventions are correct?

(1) The money measurement concept requires all assets and liabilities to be accounted for at historical cost.

(2) The substance over form. convention means that the economic substance of a transaction should be reflected in

the financial statements, not necessarily its legal form.

(3) The realisation concept means that profits or gains cannot normally be recognised in the income statement until

realised.

(4) The application of the prudence concept means that assets must be understated and liabilities must be overstated

in preparing financial statements.

A 1 and 3

B 2 and 3

C 2 and 4

D 1 and 4.

正确答案:B


(c) Explain how the use of activity-based techniques may benefit Taliesin Ltd. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The usefulness of activity-based techniques is accentuated in situations where overheads comprise a significant proportion of
product costs. Manufacturing overheads comprise 30·9% of turnover during the year ended 31 May 2005. Traditional
methods of allocating overheads to products might result in product cost information which is misleading and detrimental to
managerial decision-making. Calculations of product costs are more prone to error in situations where higher levels of
overhead exist. The consequences can prove disastrous as, for example, in the under-pricing or over-pricing of products.
Since Taliesin Ltd is going to confine its activities to its home country it must be prepared to face increased competition and
this increases the need for greater visibility and more accurate product cost information.
At present, Taliesin Ltd offers a range of products which is increasing in number and this may lead to the need for a more
detailed costing system. Traditional absorption systems might well be inadequate as the number of product variants increases.
One would expect that each new product developed is more complex than its predecessors. The company would probably
start with simple Vanilla, then a few basic flavours but as Taliesin Ltd has expanded one would expect it to take longer to
originate and test new products until they are ready to be introduced. It will probably take longer to mix the ingredients for a
run of each product.
These two, development and mixing ingredients, are examples of activities which arise when new products are considered.
If traditional absorption costing and budgeting are used based on machine-time in production then the effect of these activities
would be ignored.
In order to gain a full appreciation of the impact of new product introduction activity-based techniques should be used to
guide Taliesin Ltd into the easiest way to maintain its policy of growth. It may be a better decision to expand abroad or into
new markets at home with the existing products than pursue growth by introducing new products to a dwindling number of
customers.
We are not told of the composition of the customer base of Taliesin Ltd. However, one thing we do know is that the scope of
activity-based techniques extends beyond products and services. For example, the application of activity-based costing can
provide vital information that enables management to undertake customer profitability analysis, thereby further improving
management decision-making and operating performance.


(ii) Explain THREE strategies that might be adopted in order to improve the future prospects of Diverse

Holdings Plc. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) The forecast situation of Diverse Holdings Plc is not without its problems. KAL and OPL require the immediate attention
of management. The position of KAL is precarious to say the least. There is a choice of strategies for it:
(i) Outsource the manufacture of appliances
(ii) Set up a manufacturing operation overseas
(ii) Withdraw from the market.
Each alternative must be assessed. Whatever decision is taken it is unlikely to affect the other four subsidiaries.
PSL is also independent of the other subsidiaries. A strategic decision to widen its range of products and outlets must
surely help. Hence management should endeavour to find new markets for its products, which are separate and distinct
from those markets served by its appointed distributors.
21
In order to improve the prospects of OPL management need to adopt appropriate strategies since at the present time the
company appears to be in a high growth market but is unable to capture a reasonable market share. Perhaps the answer
lies in increased or more effective advertising of the endorsement of the product range by health and safety experts.
Management should endeavour to develop a strategy to integrate further its subsidiaries so that they can benefit from
each other and also derive as much synergy as possible from the acquisition of HTL.
It is of paramount importance that management ensure that sufficient funds are channelled into growing OFL and HTL,
which are both showing a rising trend in profitability. The group has depleted cash reserves which must to some extent
be attributable to the purchase of HTL. It is possible that the divestment of KAL would provide some much needed
funding.


(d) Family owned and managed businesses often find delegation and succession difficult processes to get right.

What models would you recommend that Tony use in looking to change his leadership and management style

to create a culture in the Shirtmaster Group better able to deal with the challenges it faces? (10 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Much has been written on the links between leadership and culture and in particular the influence of the founder on the
culture of the organisation. Schein actually argues that leadership and culture are two sides of the same coin. Tony’s father
had a particular vision of the type of company he wanted and importance of product innovation to the success of the business.
Tony is clearly influenced by that cultural legacy and has maintained a dominant role in the business though there is little
evidence of continuing innovation. Using the McKinsey 7-S model the founder or leader is the main influence on the
development of the shared values in the firm that shapes the culture. However, it is clear from the scenario that Tony through
his ‘hands-on’ style. of leadership is affecting the other elements in the model – strategy, structure and systems – the ‘hard’
factors and the senior staff and their skills – the ‘soft’ factors – in making strategic decisions.
Delegation has been highlighted as one of the problems Tony has to face and it is a familiar one in family firms. Certainly
there could be need for him to give his senior management team the responsibility for the functional areas they nominally
control. Tony’s style. is very much a ‘hands-on’ style. but this may be inappropriate for handling the problems that the company
faces. Equally, he seems too responsible for the strategic decisions the company is taking and not effectively involving his
team in the strategy process. Style. is seen as a key factor in influencing the culture of an organisation and getting the right
balance between being seen as a paternalistic owner-manager and a chairman and chief executive looking to develop his
senior management team is difficult. Leadership is increasingly being seen as encouraging and enabling others to handle
change and challenge and questioning the assumptions that have influenced Shirtmaster’s strategic thinking and development
to date. The positive side of Tony’s style. of leadership is that he is both known and well regarded by the staff on the factory
floor. Unfortunately, if the decision is taken to source shirts from abroad this may mean that the manufacturing capability
disappears.

6D–ENGAA
Paper 3.5
Tony should be aware that changing the culture of an organisation is not an easy task and that as well as his leadership style
influencing, his leadership can also be constrained by the existing culture that exists in the Shirtmaster Group. Other models
that could be useful include Johnson, Scholes and Whittington’s cultural web and Lewin’s three-stage model of change and
forcefield analysis. Finally, Peters and Waterman in their classic study ‘In search of excellence’ provides insights into the closerelationship between leadership and creating a winning culture.


4 The Better Agriculture Group (BAG), which has a divisional structure, produces a range of products for the farming

industry. Divisions B and C are two of its divisions. Division B sells a fertiliser product (BF) to customers external to

BAG. Division C produces a chemical (CC) which it could transfer to Division B for use in the manufacture of its

product BF. However, Division C could also sell some of its output of chemical CC to external customers of BAG.

An independent external supplier to The Better Agriculture Group has offered to supply Division B with a chemical

which is equivalent to component CC. The independent supplier has a maximum spare capacity of 60,000 kilograms

of the chemical which it is willing to make available (in total or in part) to Division B at a special price of $55 per

kilogram.

Forecast information for the forthcoming period is as follows:

Division B:

Production and sales of 360,000 litres of BF at a selling price of $120 per litre.

Variable conversion costs of BF will amount to $15 per litre.

Fixed costs are estimated at $18,000,000.

Chemical (CC) is used at the rate of 1 kilogram of CC per 4 litres of product BF.

Division C:

Total production capacity of 100,000 kilograms of chemical CC.

Variable costs will be $50 per kilogram of CC.

Fixed costs are estimated at $2,000,000.

Market research suggests that external customers of BAG are willing to take up sales of 40,000 kilograms of CC at a

price of $105 per kilogram. The remaining 60,000 kilograms of CC could be transferred to Division B for use in

product BF. Currently no other market external to BAG is available for the 60,000 kilograms of CC.

Required:

(a) (i) State the price/prices per kilogram at which Division C should offer to transfer chemical CC to Division

B in order that the maximisation of BAG profit would occur if Division B management implement rational

sourcing decisions based on purely financial grounds.

Note: you should explain the basis on which Division B would make its decision using the information

available, incorporating details of all relevant calculations. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(a) (i) In order to facilitate BAG profit maximising decisions the following strategy should apply:
Division C should offer to transfer chemical CC to Division B at marginal cost plus opportunity cost. This would apply
as follows:
– 40,000 kilograms of CC at $105 per kilogram since this is the price that could be achieved from sales to external
customers of BAG.
– 60,000 kilograms of CC at marginal cost of $50 per kilogram since no alternative opportunity exists.
Division B has a sales forecast of 360,000 litres of product BF. This will require 360,000/4 = 90,000 kilograms of
chemical CC input.
Based on the pricing by Division C indicated above, Division B would choose to purchase 60,000 kilograms of CC from
Division C at $50 per kilogram, since this is less than the $55 per kilogram quoted by the independent supplier.
Division B would purchase its remaining requirement for 30,000 kilograms of CC from the independent supplier at $55
per kilogram since this is less than the $105 per kilogram at which Division C would offer to transfer its remaining output
– given that it can sell the residual output to external customers of BAG.


(c) Assuming that Stuart:

(i) purchased 201,000 shares in Omega plc on 3 December 2005; and

(ii) dies on 20 December 2007,

calculate the potential inheritance tax (IHT) liability which would arise if Rebecca were to die on 1 March

2008, and no further tax planning measures were taken.

Assume that all asset values remain unchanged and that the current rates of inheritance tax continue to

apply. (6 marks)

正确答案:

 


21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第4章


(b) Identify the most appropriate approved share option scheme for Happy Home Ltd. Outline the scheme

requirements and the tax benefits of using it compared to the current unapproved scheme. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Share option scheme
The scheme that is best suited to Happy Home Limited is the enterprise management incentive (EMI) scheme. This share
option scheme is aimed at small fast growing companies, and because the potential risks are considered to be higher, the
available rewards are greater.
To qualify, the company must be a trading company, carrying out a qualifying trade in the United Kingdom, with gross assets
no more than £30m. The company must not be under the control of another company.
A qualifying company can grant each employee unexercised options over shares worth up to £100,000 per employee subject
to a total overall limit of unexercised options of £3 million. The options must be granted for commercial reasons to recruit and
retain the employee(s).
A qualifying employee is one who works on average 25 hours per week or 75% of their working time and who does not
(together with his/her associates) have a material interest in the company.
No income tax or national insurance is charged on either the grant or the exercise of the option provided that the option is
exercised not more than 10 years from the date of the grant and the amount paid is not less than the market value of the
shares at the time the option was granted.
On the sale of the shares, capital gains tax will apply, but business asset taper relief is available. Also in this case, the taper
relief starts from the date the option is granted and not from the date of exercise, as is the case with other option schemes.


(ii) Briefly discuss TWO factors which could reduce the rate of return earned by the investment as per the

results in part (a). (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Two factors which might reduce the return earned by the investment are as follows:
(i) Poor product quality
The very nature of the product requires that it is of the highest quality i.e. the cakes are made for human
consumption. Bad publicity via a ‘product recall’ could potentially have a catastrophic effect on the total sales to
Superstores plc over the eighteen month period.
(ii) The popularity of the Mighty Ben character
There is always the risk that the popularity of the character upon which the product is based will diminish with a
resultant impact on sales volumes achieved. In this regard it would be advisable to attempt to negotiate with
Superstores plc in order to minimise potential future losses.


2 The Information Technology division (IT) of the RJ Business Consulting Group provides consulting services to its

clients as well as to other divisions within the group. Consultants always work in teams of two on every consulting

day. Each consulting day is charged to external clients at £750 which represents cost plus 150% profit mark up. The

total cost per consulting day has been estimated as being 80% variable and 20% fixed.

The director of the Human Resources (HR) division of RJ Business Consulting Group has requested the services of

two teams of consultants from the IT division on five days per week for a period of 48 weeks, and has suggested that

she meets with the director of the IT division in order to negotiate a transfer price. The director of the IT division has

responded by stating that he is aware of the limitations of using negotiated transfer prices and intends to charge the

HR division £750 per consulting day.

The IT division always uses ‘state of the art’ video-conferencing equipment on all internal consultations which would

reduce the variable costs by £50 per consulting day. Note: this equipment can only be used when providing internal

consultations.

Required:

(a) Calculate and discuss the transfer prices per consulting day at which the IT division should provide

consulting services to the HR division in order to ensure that the profit of the RJ Business Consulting Group

is maximised in each of the following situations:

(i) Every pair of consultants in the IT division is 100% utilised during the required 48-week period in

providing consulting services to external clients, i.e. there is no spare capacity.

(ii) There is one team of consultants who, being free from other commitments, would be available to

undertake the provision of services to the HR division during the required 48-week period. All other

teams of consultants would be 100% utilised in providing consulting services to external clients.

(iii) A major client has offered to pay the IT division £264,000 for the services of two teams of consultants

during the required 48-week period.

(12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) (i) The transfer price of £750 proposed by the IT division is based on cost plus 150% from which it can be deduced that
the total cost of a consulting day is (100/250) x £750 = £300. This comprises £240 (80%) variable cost and £60
(20%) fixed cost. In this instance the transfer price should be set at marginal costs plus opportunity cost. It is assumed
in this situation that transferring internally would result in the IT division having a lost contribution of £750 – £240 =
£510 per consulting day. The marginal cost of the transfer of services to the HR division is £190 (£240 external variable
costs less £50 saving due to use of internal video-conferencing equipment). Adding the opportunity cost of £510 gives
a transfer price of £700 per consulting day. This is equivalent to using market price as a basis for transfer pricing where
the transfer price is set at the external market price (£750) less any costs avoided (£50) by transferring internally.
(ii) There is in effect no external market available for one of the required pairs of consultants within the IT division and
therefore opportunity cost will not apply and transfers should be made at the variable cost per consulting day of £190.
The other pair of consultants, who would otherwise be 100% utilised in providing consulting services to external clients,
should be charged at a rate of £700 per day which represents marginal cost plus opportunity cost.
(iii) The lost contribution from the major client amounts to £264,000/(2 x 240) = £550 less variable costs of £240 =
£310 per consulting day. Thus, in this instance the transfer price should be the contribution foregone of £310 plus
internal variable costs of £190 making a total of £500 per consulting day.


(iii) job enrichment. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Job enrichment, which is often referred to as ‘vertical job enlargement’, is a planned, deliberate action to build greater responsibility, breadth and challenge into the work of the individual. The emphasis is on the individual rather than the organisation, team or group. This may be a way forward for some of Bailey’s employees since it provides the individual employee with the responsibility for decision making of a higher order, provides greater freedom to decide how the job or task should be undertaken, improves understanding of the entire process, encourages participation in the planning and production procedures and provides regular feedback to management – urgently needed at Bailey’s.


(b) You are the manager responsible for the audit of Poppy Co, a manufacturing company with a year ended

31 October 2008. In the last year, several investment properties have been purchased to utilise surplus funds

and to provide rental income. The properties have been revalued at the year end in accordance with IAS 40

Investment Property, they are recognised on the statement of financial position at a fair value of $8 million, and

the total assets of Poppy Co are $160 million at 31 October 2008. An external valuer has been used to provide

the fair value for each property.

Required:

(i) Recommend the enquiries to be made in respect of the external valuer, before placing any reliance on their

work, and explain the reason for the enquiries; (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Enquiries in respect of the external valuer
Enquiries would need to be made for two main reasons, firstly to determine the competence, and secondly the objectivity
of the valuer. ISA 620 Using the Work of an Expert contains guidance in this area.
Competence
Enquiries could include:
– Is the valuer a member of a recognised professional body, for example a nationally or internationally recognised
institute of registered surveyors?
– Does the valuer possess any necessary licence to carry out valuations for companies?
– How long has the valuer been a member of the recognised body, or how long has the valuer been licensed under
that body?
– How much experience does the valuer have in providing valuations of the particular type of investment properties
held by Poppy Co?
– Does the valuer have specific experience of evaluating properties for the purpose of including their fair value within
the financial statements?
– Is there any evidence of the reputation of the valuer, e.g. professional references, recommendations from other
companies for which a valuation service has been provided?
– How much experience, if any, does the valuer have with Poppy Co?
Using the above enquiries, the auditor is trying to form. an opinion as to the relevance and reliability of the valuation
provided. ISA 500 Audit Evidence requires that the auditor gathers evidence that is both sufficient and appropriate. The
auditor needs to ensure that the fair values provided by the valuer for inclusion in the financial statements have been
arrived at using appropriate knowledge and skill which should be evidenced by the valuer being a member of a
professional body, and, if necessary, holding a licence under that body.
It is important that the fair values have been arrived at using methods allowed under IAS 40 Investment Property. If any
other valuation method has been used then the value recognised in the statement of financial position may not be in
accordance with financial reporting standards. Thus it is important to understand whether the valuer has experience
specifically in providing valuations that comply with IAS 40, and how many times the valuer has appraised properties
similar to those owned by Poppy Co.
In gauging the reliability of the fair value, the auditor may wish to consider how Poppy Co decided to appoint this
particular valuer, e.g. on the basis of a recommendation or after receiving references from companies for which
valuations had previously been provided.
It will also be important to consider how familiar the valuer is with Poppy Co’s business and environment, as a way to
assess the reliability and appropriateness of any assumptions used in the valuation technique.
Objectivity
Enquiries could include:
– Does the valuer have any financial interest in Poppy Co, e.g. shares held directly or indirectly in the company?
– Does the valuer have any personal relationship with any director or employee of Poppy Co?
– Is the fee paid for the valuation service reasonable and a fair, market based price?
With these enquiries, the auditor is gaining assurance that the valuer will perform. the valuation from an independent
point of view. If the valuer had a financial interest in Poppy Co, there would be incentive to manipulate the valuation in
a way best suited to the financial statements of the company. Equally if the valuer had a personal relationship with a
senior member of staff at Poppy Co, the valuer may feel pressured to give a favourable opinion on the valuation of the
properties.
The level of fee paid is important. It should be commensurate with the market rate paid for this type of valuation. If the
valuer was paid in excess of what might be considered a normal fee, it could indicate that the valuer was encouraged,
or even bribed, to provide a favourable valuation.


(ii) The percentage change in revenue, total costs and net assets during the year ended 31 May 2008 that

would have been required in order to have achieved a target ROI of 20% by the Beetown centre. Your

answer should consider each of these three variables in isolation. State any assumptions that you make.

(6 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) The ROI of Beetown is currently 13·96%. In order to obtain an ROI of 20%, operating profit would need to increase to
(20% x $3,160,000) = $632,000, based on the current level of net assets. Three alternative ways in which a target
ROI of 20% could be achieved for the Beetown centre are as follows:
(1) Attempts could be made to increase revenue by attracting more clients while keeping invested capital and operating
profit per $ of revenue constant. Revenue would have to increase to $2,361,644, assuming that the current level
of profitability is maintained and fixed costs remain unchanged. The current rate of contribution to revenue is
$2,100,000 – $567,000 = $1,533,000/$2,100,000 = 73%. Operating profit needs to increase by $191,000
in order to achieve an ROI of 20%. Therefore, revenue needs to increase by $191,000/0·73 = $261,644 =
12·46%.
(2) Attempts could be made to decrease the level of operating costs by, for example, increasing the efficiency of
maintenance operations. This would have the effect of increasing operating profit per $ of revenue. This would
require that revenue and invested capital were kept constant. Total operating costs would need to fall by $191,000
in order to obtain an ROI of 20%. This represents a percentage decrease of 191,000/1,659,000 = 11·5%. If fixed
costs were truly fixed, then variable costs would need to fall to a level of $376,000, which represents a decrease
of 33·7%.
(3) Attempts could be made to decrease the net asset base of HFG by, for example, reducing debtor balances and/or
increasing creditor balances, while keeping turnover and operating profit per $ of revenue constant. Net assets
would need to fall to a level of ($441,000/0·2) = $2,205,000, which represents a percentage decrease
amounting to $3,160,000 – $2,205,000 = 955,000/3,160,000 = 30·2%.


(b) A recruitment service offered to clients. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Recruitment service
IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants does not prohibit firms from offering a recruitment service to client
companies. However several ethical problems could arise if the service were offered. The severity of these problems would
depend on the exact nature of the service provided, and the role of the person recruited into the client’s organisation.
Specific ethical threats could include:
Self-interest – clearly the motive for Becker & Co to offer this service is to generate income from audit clients, thereby creating
a financial self-interest threat. The amount received for the recruitment service depends on the magnitude of the salary of the
person employed. The more senior the person recruited, the higher their salary is likely to be, and therefore the higher the
fee to be paid to Becker & Co.
In addition, the firm could be tempted to advise positively on the recruitment of an individual merely to receive the relevant
recruitment fee, without properly considering the suitability of the person for the role.
Familiarity – when performing the audit, the auditors may be less likely to criticise or challenge the work performed by a
person they helped to recruit, as any significant problems discovered may make the recruitment appear ill-advised.
Management involvement – there is also a threat that the audit firm could be perceived to be making management decisions
by selecting employees. The firm could offer services such as reviewing the professional qualifications of a number of
applicants, and providing advice on the applicant’s suitability for the post. In addition the firm could draw up a shortlist of
candidates for interview, using criteria specified by the client. However in all cases, the final decision as to whom to hire must
be made by the client, as the audit firm should not make, or be perceived to be making, management decisions.
The threats discussed above would increase in significance if the recruitee took on a role in key management pertaining to
the finance function, such as finance director or financial controller. The threats would be less severe if the audit firm advised
on the recruitment of a junior member of the client’s finance function.
If these threats could not be reduced to a level less than clearly insignificant, then the recruitment service should not be
offered.
Commercial evaluation
The firm should consider whether there is likely to be much demand for the potential service before developing such a
resource. Some form. of market research is essential.
Offering this type of service represents a significant departure from normal audit services. The firm should consider whether
there is sufficient knowledge and expertise to offer a recruitment service. Ingrid Sharapova seems to have some experience,
but her skills may be out of date, and may not be specifically relevant to the recruitment of finance professionals. It may be
that considerable training and possibly the attainment of a new professional qualification relevant to recruitment may be
necessary for a credible service to be offered to clients.
If the recruitment service proved successful, then Ingrid could be faced with too much work as she is the only person with
relevant experience, and has no one to delegate to. If the firm decides to offer this service, then one other person should
receive appropriate training, to cover for Ingrid’s holidays and any sick leave, and to provide someone for Ingrid to delegate
to. The financial cost of such training should be considered.
Finally, Becker & Co should consider the potential damage to the firm’s reputation if the service offered is not of a high quality.
If the partners decide to pursue this business opportunity, they may wish to consider setting it up as a separate entity, so that
if the business fails or its reputation is questioned, the damage to Becker & Co would be minimised.


21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第5章


4 (a) Explain the auditor’s responsibilities in respect of subsequent events. (5 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

正确答案:
4 JINACK CO
(a) Auditor’s responsibilities for subsequent events
■ Auditors must consider the effect of subsequent events on:
– the financial statements;
– the auditor’s report.
■ Subsequent events are all events occurring after a period end (i.e. reporting date) i.e.:
– events after the balance sheet date (as defined in IAS 10); and
– events after the financial statements have been authorised for issue.
Events occurring up to date of auditor’s report
■ The auditor is responsible for carrying out procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that all
events up to the date of the auditor’s report that may require adjustment of, or disclosure in, the financial statements
have been identified.
■ These procedures are in addition to those applied to specific transactions occurring after the period end that provide
audit evidence of period-end account balances (e.g. inventory cut-off and receipts from trade receivables). Such
procedures should ordinarily include:
– reviewing minutes of board/audit committee meetings;
– scrutinising latest interim financial statements/budgets/cash flows, etc;
– making/extending inquiries to legal advisors on litigation matters;
– inquiring of management whether any subsequent events have occurred that might affect the financial statements
(e.g. commitments entered into).
■ When the auditor becomes aware of events that materially affect the financial statements, the auditor must consider
whether they have been properly accounted for and adequately disclosed in the financial statements.
Facts discovered after the date of the auditor’s report but before financial statements are issued
Tutorial note: After the date of the auditor’s report it is management’s responsibility to inform. the auditor of facts which
may affect the financial statements.
■ If the auditor becomes aware of such facts which may materially affect the financial statements, the auditor:
– considers whether the financial statements need amendment;
– discusses the matter with management; and
– takes appropriate action (e.g. audit any amendments to the financial statements and issue a new auditor’s report).
■ If management does not amend the financial statements (where the auditor believes they need to be amended) and the
auditor’s report has not been released to the entity, the auditor should express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion
(as appropriate).
■ If the auditor’s report has been released to the entity, the auditor must notify those charged with governance not to issue
the financial statements (and the auditor’s report thereon) to third parties.
Tutorial note: The auditor would seek legal advice if the financial statements and auditor’s report were subsequently issued.
Facts discovered after the financial statements have been issued
■ The auditor has no obligation to make any inquiry regarding financial statements that have been issued.
■ However, if the auditor becomes aware of a fact which existed at the date of the auditor’s report and which, if known
at that date, may have caused the auditor’s report to be modified, the auditor should:
– consider whether the financial statements need revision;
– discuss the matter with management; and
– take appropriate action (e.g. issuing a new report on revised financial statements).


(b) Prepare a reasoned explanation of how any capital gains tax arising in the UK on the sale of the paintings

can be minimised. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Minimising capital gains tax on the sale of the paintings
Galileo will become resident and ordinarily resident from the date he arrives in the UK as he intends to stay for more than
three years. Prior to that date he will be neither resident nor ordinarily resident such that he will not be subject to UK capital
gains tax.
Galileo should sell the paintings before he leaves Astronomeria; this will avoid UK capital gains tax completely.
Tutorial note
The gains would be taxable on the remittance basis if the paintings were sold after Galileo’s arrival in the UK. However, this
would not help Galileo to minimise the capital gains tax due as he needs to bring the sales proceeds into the UK in order
to purchase a house.


(b) Calculate the value of the closing stocks of finished goods at the end of the three-month period, and the value

of cost of sales for the period. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Opening stock of finished goods = £69,800
Closing stock of finished goods = 2,000 x 18·66 = £37,320
Cost of sales for three-month period = 69,800 + 2,262,380 – 37,320 = £2,294,860


(b) (i) Discuss the main factors that should be taken into account when determining how to treat gains and

losses arising on tangible non-current assets in a single statement of financial performance. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Currently there are many rules on how gains and losses on tangible non current assets should be reported and these
have traditionally varied from country to country. The main issues revolve around the reporting of depreciation,
disposal/revaluation gains and losses, and impairment losses. The reporting of such elements should take into account
whether the tangible non current assets have been revalued or held at historical cost. The problem facing standard
setters is where to report such gains and losses.The question is whether they should be reported as part of operating
activities or as ‘other gains and losses’.
Holding gains arising on the sale of tangible non current assets could be reported separately from operating results so
that the latter is not obscured by an asset realisation that reflects more a change in market prices than any increase in
the operating activity of the entity. Other changes in the carrying amounts of tangible non current assets will be reported
as part of the operating results. For example, the depreciation charge tries to reflect the consumption of the asset by the
entity and as such is not a holding loss. There may be cases where the depreciation charge does not reflect the
consumption of economic benefits. For example, the pattern and rate of depreciation could have been misjudged
because the asset’s useful life has been assessed incorrectly. In this case, when an asset is sold any excess or shortfall
of depreciation may need to be dealt with in the operating result.
Impairment is another factor to consider in reporting gains and losses on tangible non current assets. Impairment is
effectively accelerated depreciation. Impairment arises when the carrying amount of the asset is above its recoverable
amount. It follows therefore that any impairment loss should be reported as part of the operating result. Any losses on
disposal, to the extent that they represent impairment, could therefore be reported as part of the operating results. Any
losses which represent holding losses could be reported in ‘other gains and losses’. The difficulty will be differentiating
between holding losses and impairment losses. There will have to be clear and concise definitions of these terms or it
could lead to abuse by companies in their quest to maximise operating profits.
A distinction should be made between gains and losses arising on tangible non current assets as a result of revaluations
and those arising on disposal. The nature of the gain or loss is essentially the same although the timing and certainty
of the gain/loss is different. Therefore revaluation gains/losses may be reported in the ‘other gains and losses’ section.
Where an asset has been revalued, any loss on disposal that represents an impairment would be charged to operating
results and any remaining loss reported in ‘other gains and losses’.
Essentially, gains and losses should be reported on the basis of the characteristics of the gains and losses themselves.
Gains and losses with similar characteristics should be reported together thus helping the comparability of financial
performance nationally and internationally.


(c) Explain how Perfect Shopper might re-structure its downstream supply chain to address the problems

identified in the scenario. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(c) A number of opportunities appear to exist in the downstream supply chain.
As already mentioned above, Perfect Shopper can revisit its contract distribution arrangements. At present, distribution to
neighbourhood shops is in the hands of locally appointed contract distributors. As already suggested, it may be possible to
contract one integrated logistics company to carry out both inbound and outbound logistics, so gaining economies of scale
and opportunities for branding.
One of the problems identified in the independent report was the inflexibility of the ordering and delivering system. The
ordering system appears to be built around a fixed standard delivery made every two weeks, agreed in advance for a three
month period. Variations can be made to this standard order, but only increases – not decreases. Presumably, this
arrangement is required to allow Perfect Shopper to forecast demand over a three month period and to place bulk orders to
reflect these commitments. However, this may cause at least two problems. The first is that participating shops place a
relatively low standard order and rely on variations to fulfil demand. This causes problems for Perfect Shopper. Secondly, any
unpredictable fall in demand during the three month period leads to the shop having storage problems and unsold stock. This
potentially creates problems for the shop owner, who may also begin to question the value of the franchise. Hence Perfect
Shopper might wish to consider a much more flexible system where orders can be made to match demand and deliveries
can be made as required. This would also remove the requirement for a three monthly meeting between the franchisee andthe sales representative from Perfect Shopper. Investments in IT systems will be required to support this, with participating
shops placing orders over the Internet to reflect their requirements. This move towards a more flexible purchasing arrangement
may also make the outsourcing of warehousing and distribution even more appealing.
Perfect Shopper may also wish to investigate whether they can also provide value added services to customers, which not
only simplify the ordering system but also allow the shop managers to better understand their customers and fulfil their
requirements. The supply chain may legitimately include the customer’s customers, particularly for franchisers. This is already
acknowledged because Perfect Shopper produces tailored marketing material aimed at the end-consumer. Point of Sales (PoS)
devices feeding information back to Perfect Shopper would allow sales information to be analysed and fed back to the
shopkeeper as well as allowing automatic replenishment based on purchasing trends. However, this may be culturally difficult
for independent neighbourhood shopkeepers to accept. Furthermore, it would potentially include information outside the
products offered by Perfect Shopper and the implications of this would have to be considered. However, a whole shop sales
analysis might be a useful service to offer existing and potential franchisees.
Customers are increasingly willing to order products over the Internet. It seems unlikely that individual shopkeepers would be
able to establish and maintain their own Internet-based service. It would be useful for Perfect Shopper to explore the potential
of establishing a central website with customers placing orders from local shops. Again there are issues about scope, because
Perfect Shopper does not offer a whole-shop service. However, Michael de Kare-Silver has identified groceries as a product
area that has good potential for Internet purchase. In his electronic shopping potential test any product scoring over 20 hasgood potential. Groceries scored 27.


(c) Lamont owns a residential apartment above its head office. Until 31 December 2006 it was let for $3,000 a

month. Since 1 January 2007 it has been occupied rent-free by the senior sales executive. (6 marks)

Required:

For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
(c) Rent-free accommodation
(i) Matters
■ The senior sales executive is a member of Lamont’s key management personnel and is therefore a related party.
■ The occupation of Lamont’s residential apartment by the senior sales executive is therefore a related party
transaction, even though no price is charged (IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures).
■ Related party transactions are material by nature and information about them should be disclosed so that users of
financial statements understand the potential effect of related party relationships on the financial statements.
■ The provision of ‘housing’ is a non-monetary benefit that should be included in the disclosure of key management
personnel compensation (within the category of short-term employee benefits).
■ The financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 should disclose the arrangement for providing the
senior sales executive with rent-free accommodation and its fair value (i.e. $3,000 per month).
Tutorial note: Since no price is charged for the transaction, rote-learned disclosures such as ‘the amount of outstanding
balances’ and ‘expense recognised in respect of bad debts’ are irrelevant.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Physical inspection of the apartment to confirm that it is occupied.
■ Written representation from the senior sales executive that he is occupying the apartment free of charge.
■ Written representation from the management board confirming that there are no related party transactions requiring
disclosure other than those that have been disclosed.
■ Inspection of the lease agreement with (or payments received from) the previous tenant to confirm the $3,000
monthly rental value.


(c) Illustrate how:

(i) inquiry; and (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Due diligence review
(i) Inquiries
Tutorial note: These should be focussed on uncovering facts that may not be revealed by the audited financial
statements (e.g. off balance sheet finance, contingencies, commitments and contracts) especially where knowledge
may be confined to management.
■ Do any members of MCM’s senior/executive management have contractual terms that will result in significant
payouts to them (e.g. on change of ownership of the company or their being made redundant)?
■ What contracts with clients, if any, will lapse or be made void in the event that MCM is purchased from Frontiers?
■ What synergy or inter-company trading, if any, currently exists between MCM and Frontiers? For example, Frontiers
may publish MCM’s training materials.
■ Are there any major clients who are likely to be lost if MCM is purchased by Plaza (e.g. any competitor food
retailers)?
■ What are the principal terms of the operating leases relating to the International business’s premises?
■ What penalties should be expected to be incurred if operating leases and/or contracts with training consultants are
terminated?
■ Has MCM entered into any purchase commitments since 31 December 2004 (e.g. to buy or lease further
premises)?
■ Who are the best trainers that Plaza should seek to retain after the purchase of MCM?
■ What events since the audited financial statements to 31 December 2004 were published have made a significant
impact on MCM’s assets, liabilities, operating capability and/or cash flows? (For example, storm damage to
premises, major clients defaulting on payments, significant interest/foreign-exchange rate fluctuations, etc.)
■ Are there any unresolved tax issues which have not been provided for in full?
■ What effect will the purchase have on loan covenants? For example, term loans may be rendered repayable on a
change of ownership.


21年ACCA/CAT答疑精华6章 第6章


(c) Identify and discuss the ethical and professional matters raised at the inventory count of LA Shots Co.

(6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) There are several ethical and professional issues raised in relation to the inventory count of LA Shots Co.
Firstly, it was inappropriate of Brenda Mangle to offer the incentive to the audit juniors. As she is a new manager, it may be
that she didn’t realise how the incentive would be perceived. Brenda should be informed that her actions could have serious
implications.
The offer could be viewed as a bribe of the audit juniors, and could be perceived as a self-interest independence threat as
there is a financial benefit offered to members of the audit team.
The value of the ten bottles of ‘Super Juice’ should be considered, as it is only appropriate for a member of the audit team to
accept any goods or hospitality from the audit client if the value is ‘clearly insignificant’. Ultimately it would be the decision
of the audit partner as to whether the value is clearly insignificant. It is likely that this does not constitute a significant threat
to independence, however the offer should still be referred to the audit partner.
Also, if the juniors took ten bottles of ‘Super Juice’, this could interfere with the physical count of goods and/or with cut off
details obtained at the count. The juniors should therefore have declined the offer and informed a senior member of the audit
team of the situation.
There may be a need to adequately train new members of staff on ethical matters if the juniors were unsure of how to react
to the offer.
The work performed by the juniors at the inventory count must be reviewed. The audit procedures were performed very
quickly compared to last year and therefore sufficient evidence may not have been gathered. In an extreme situation the whole
inventory count may have to be reperformed if it is found that the procedures performed cannot be relied upon.
In addition, the juniors should not have attended the audit client’s office party without the permission of the audit manager.
The party appears to have taken place during work time, when the juniors should have been completing the inventory count
procedures. The two juniors have not acted with due professional consideration, and could be considered to lack integrity.
The actions of the juniors should be discussed with them, possibly with a view to disciplinary action.
There may also be questions over whether the direction and supervision of the juniors was adequate. As the two juniors are
both recent recruits, this is likely to be the first inventory count that they have attended. It appears that they may not have
been adequately briefed as to the importance of the inventory count as a source of audit evidence, or that they have
disregarded any such briefing that was provided to them. In either case possibly a more senior auditor should have
accompanied them to the inventory count and supervised their actions.


(b) (i) Calculate Amanda’s income tax payable for the tax year 2006/07; (11 marks)

正确答案:

 


(ii) Explain whether or not Carver Ltd will become a close investment-holding company as a result of

acquiring either the office building or the share portfolio and state the relevance of becoming such a

company. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Close investment holding company status
Carver Ltd will not become a close investment-holding company if it purchases the office building as, although it will no
longer be a trading company, it intends to rent out the building to a number of tenants none of whom is connected to
the company.
Carver Ltd will become a close investment holding company if it purchases a portfolio of quoted shares as it will no
longer be a trading company. As a result it will pay corporation tax at the full rate of 30% regardless of the level of its
profits.


(b) (i) Compute the corporation tax liability of Speak Write Ltd for its first trading period on the assumption

that the IR 35 legislation applies to all of its income. (2 marks)

正确答案:

 


22 Which of the following items may appear in a company’s statement of changes in equity, according to IAS 1 Presentation of financial statements?

1 Unrealised revaluation gains.

2 Dividends paid.

3 Proceeds of equity share issue.

4 Profit for the period.

A 2, 3 and 4 only

B 1, 3 and 4 only

C All four items

D 1, 2 and 4 only

正确答案:C


(c) Maxwell Co is audited by Lead & Co, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. Leo Sabat has enquired as to

whether your firm would be prepared to conduct a joint audit in cooperation with Lead & Co, on the future

financial statements of Maxwell Co if the acquisition goes ahead. Leo Sabat thinks that this would enable your

firm to improve group audit efficiency, without losing the cumulative experience that Lead & Co has built up while

acting as auditor to Maxwell Co.

Required:

Define ‘joint audit’, and assess the advantages and disadvantages of the audit of Maxwell Co being conducted

on a ‘joint basis’. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(c) A joint audit is when two or more audit firms are jointly responsible for giving the audit opinion. This is very common in a
group situation where the principal auditor is appointed jointly with the auditor of a subsidiary to provide a joint opinion on
the subsidiary’s financial statements. There are several advantages and disadvantages in a joint audit being performed.
Advantages
It can be beneficial in terms of audit efficiency for a joint audit to be conducted, especially in the case of a new subsidiary.
In this case, Lead & Co will have built up an understanding of Maxwell Co’s business, systems and controls, and financial
statement issues. It will be time efficient for the two firms of auditors to work together in order for Chien & Co to build up
knowledge of the new subsidiary. This is a key issue, as Chien & Co need to acquire a thorough understanding of the
subsidiary in order to assess any risks inherent in the company which could impact on the overall assessment of risk within
the group. Lead & Co will be able to provide a good insight into the company, and advise Chien & Co of the key risk areas
they have previously identified.
On the practical side, it seems that Maxwell Co is a significant addition to the group, as it is expected to increase operating
facilities by 40%. If Chien & Co were appointed as sole auditors to Maxwell Co it may be difficult for the audit firm to provide
adequate resources to conduct the audit at the same time as auditing the other group companies. A joint audit will allow
sufficient resources to be allocated to the audit of Maxwell Co, assuring the quality of the opinion provided.
If there is a tight deadline, as is common with the audit of subsidiaries, which should be completed before the group audit
commences, then having access to two firms’ resources should enable the audit to be completed in good time.
The audit should also benefit from an improvement in quality. The two audit firms may have different points of view, and
would be able to discuss contentious issues throughout the audit process. In particular, the newly appointed audit team will
have a ‘fresh pair of eyes’ and be able to offer new insight to matters identified. It should be easier to challenge management
and therefore ensure that the auditors’ position is taken seriously.
Tutorial note: Candidates may have referred to the recent debate over whether joint audits increase competition in the
profession. In particular, joint audits have been proposed as a way for ‘mid tier’ audit firms to break into the market of
auditing large companies and groups, which at the moment is monopolised by the ‘Big 4’. Although this does not answer
the specific question set, credit will be awarded for demonstration of awareness of this topical issue.
Disadvantages
For the client, it is likely to be more expensive to engage two audit firms than to have the audit opinion provided by one firm.
From a cost/benefit point of view there is clearly no point in paying twice for one opinion to be provided. Despite the audit
workload being shared, both firms will have a high cost for being involved in the audit in terms of senior manager and partner
time. These costs will be passed on to the client within the audit fee.
The two audit firms may use very different audit approaches and terminology. This could make it difficult for the audit firms
to work closely together, negating some of the efficiency and cost benefits discussed above. Problems could arise in deciding
which firm’s method to use, for example, to calculate materiality, design and pick samples for audit procedures, or evaluate
controls within the accounting system. It may be impossible to reconcile two different methods and one firm’s methods may
end up dominating the audit process, which then eliminates the benefit of a joint audit being conducted. It could be time
consuming to develop a ‘joint’ audit approach, based on elements of each of the two firms’ methodologies, time which
obviously would not have been spent if a single firm was providing the audit.
There may be problems for the two audit firms to work together harmoniously. Lead & Co may feel that ultimately they will
be replaced by Chien & Co as audit provider, and therefore could be unwilling to offer assistance and help.
Potentially, problems could arise in terms of liability. In the event of litigation, because both firms have provided the audit
opinion, it follows that the firms would be jointly liable. The firms could blame each other for any negligence which was
discovered, making the litigation process more complex than if a single audit firm had provided the opinion. However, it could
be argued that joint liability is not necessarily a drawback, as the firms should both be covered by professional indemnity
insurance.


(b) Describe the principal audit procedures to be carried out in respect of the following:

(i) The measurement of the share-based payment expense; (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Principal audit procedures – measurement of share-based payment expense
– Obtain management calculation of the expense and agree the following from the calculation to the contractual
terms of the scheme:
– Number of employees and executives granted options
– Number of options granted per employee
– The official grant date of the share options
– Vesting period for the scheme
– Required performance conditions attached to the options.
– Recalculate the expense and check that the fair value has been correctly spread over the stated vesting period.
– Agree fair value of share options to specialist’s report and calculation, and evaluate whether the specialist report is
a reliable source of evidence.
– Agree that the fair value calculated is at the grant date.
Tutorial note: A specialist such as a chartered financial analyst would commonly be used to calculate the fair value
of non-traded share options at the grant date, using models such as the Black-Scholes Model.
– Obtain and review a forecast of staffing levels or employee turnover rates for the duration of the vesting period, and
scrutinise the assumptions used to predict level of staff turnover.
– Discuss previous levels of staff turnover with a representative of the human resources department and query why
0% staff turnover has been predicted for the next three years.
– Check the sensitivity of the calculations to a change in the assumptions used in the valuation, focusing on the
assumption of 0% staff turnover.
– Obtain written representation from management confirming that the assumptions used in measuring the expense
are reasonable.
Tutorial note: A high degree of scepticism must be used by the auditor when conducting the final three procedures
due to the management assumption of 0% staff turnover during the vesting period.